Lead Authors: Courtney Godwin, Phillip Kobernick
Editors: Jonathan Cohen, Vincent Kitira, Dave Tilford
Advisors and Reviewers: Elly Adeland, The Polaris Institute; Niles Barnes, The Association for The Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education (AASHE); Karl Bruskotter, The City of Santa Monica; Jeff Doughty, Spectrum Water Coolers; Meghan Fay, The Association for The Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education (AASHE); Richard Girard, The Polaris Institute; Roger Guzowski, Five Colleges, Inc; Mark Hays, Corporate Accountability International; Deborah Howard, Washington University in St. Louis; Liz Kramer, Washington University in St. Louis; Laura Matson, The Association for The Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education (AASHE); Kady McFadden, Washington University in St. Louis; Sean Sweeney, The Association for The Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education (AASHE).
RPN would like to thank AASHE and the Polaris Institute for providing advice and resources that contributed to the creation of this Guide and Corporate Accountability International for its ongoing collaboration.
This Guide was developed thanks to the generous support of the Garfield Foundation, the Richard and Rhoda Goldman Fund, the Oram Foundation: The Fund for the Environment and Urban Life, the Park Foundation, and an anonymous donor
AASHE – Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in High Education. "STARS 1.0 Early Release." 2009. Available at http://www.aashe.org/files/documents/STARS/STARS_1.0_Early_Release_Technical_Manual_0.pdf
APC – American Plastics Council. “2004 National Post-Consumer Plastics Recycling Report.” 2005. Available at http://www.americanchemistry.com/plastics/doc.asp?CIDcid=1581&DIDdid=6009. Accessed on September 26, 2007.
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BMC – Beverage Marketing Corporation. “Growth Slows but Persists in U.S. Bottled Water Market, Beverage Marketing Corporation Report Reveals.” July 24, 2008. Available at http://www.beveragemarketing.com/?section=news. Accessed on August 5, 2008.
___ - 2009a “Smaller Categories Still Saw Growth As The U.S. Liquid Refreshment Beverage Market Shrank BY 2.0% IN 2008” Beverage Marketing Corporation. Available at http://www.beveragemarketing.com/?section=news&newsID=111
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BW Blues - Bottled Water Blues. “Pure, Healthy Water… A Necessity for Life!” 2008. Available at: http://www.bottledwaterblues.com/Pure_Water.cfm. Accessed on June 5, 2008.
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CRI – Container Recycling Institute. “Water, Water Everywhere: The Growth of Non-Carbonated Beverages in the United States.” February 2007. Available at http://www.container-recycling.org/assets/pdfs/reports/2007-waterwater.pdf.
_____2006. “Waste and Opportunity: U.S. Beverage Container Recycling and Scorecard.” October 2006. Available at http://www.container-recycling.org/assets/pdfs/reports/2006-scorecard.pdf
DOE – United States Department of Energy. “Showers, Faucets, and Drinking Fountains.” Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Federal Energy Management Program. May 2001. Available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/29267-6.3.pdf. Accessed on July 7, 2008.
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EC – The Ecology Center. “Report of the Berkeley Plastics Task Force.” April 8, 1996. Available at http://www.ecologycenter.org/ptf/report1996/report1996_toc.html. Accessed on September 26, 2007.
EPA – Environmental Protection Agency. “Drinking Water Costs & Federal Funding.” Office of Water. June 2004. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/OGogWDdW/sdwa/30th/factsheets/pdfs/fs_30ann_dwsrf_web.pdf.
______2006. Consumer Confidence Reports. Last Updated July 6, 2006. Available at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/ccr/index.html.
______2006a. Safe Drinking Water Information System. Last updated September 5, 2006. Available at http://www.epa.gov/enviro/html/sdwis/sdwis_ov.html.
______2007. “Frequently Asked Questions.” Available at http://www.epa.gov/safewaer/faq/faq.html. Accessed on September 26, 2007.
______2007a. Emissions Facts: Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Typical Passenger Vehicle. 2007. Available at http://www.epa.gov/otaq/climate/420f05004.htm.
______2007b. Terms of Environment: Glossary, Abbreviations and Acronyms. August 2, 2007. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/glossary/
______n.d. “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Bottled Water Coolers.” ENERGY STAR Program. Available at: http://www.energystar.gov/ia/partners/product_specs/program_reqs/archive/Water%20Ccooler%20Program%20Rrequirements%20Vv1.0.pdf
EPI – Earth Policy Institute. “Bottled Water: Pouring Resources Down the Drain.” February 2, 2006. Available at http://www.earth-policy.org/Uupdates/2006/Uupdate51.htm. Accessed on September 26, 2007.
EWG – The Environmental Working Group. “Fluoride in Southern California Tap Water.” August 2007. Available at http://www.ewg.org/reports/cafluoride
FDA – Food and Drug Administration. “Bisphenal A (BPA).” August 31, 2009. Available at http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/PublicHealthFocus/ucm064437.htm
GAO – United States Government Accountability Office. “Bottled Water: FDA Consumer Protections Are Often Less Stringent Than Comparable EPA Protections for Tap Water.” June 2009. Available at http://energycommerce.house.gov/Press_111/20090708/gaobottledwater.pdf
GG – Green Guide. “Product Report: Water Filters.” National Geographic. June 30, 2002. Available at: http://www.thegreenguide.com/reports/product.mhtml?id=23&sec=1. Accessed on July 9, 2008.
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Gleick, Peter. “The World’s Water: 2004-2005.” Pacific Institute. 2005. Available at http://pacinst.org/press_center/the_worlds_water_2004-2005/
Guzowski, Roger. Five Colleges, Incorporated. Personal Communication. September 15, 2009.
HC – Health Canada. “Government of Canada Protects Families With Bisphenol A Regulations.” October 17, 2008. Available at http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ahc-asc/media/nr-cp/_2008/2008_167-eng.php
IFG – International Forum on Globalization. “Blue Gold: The Global Water Crisis And The Commodification Of The World’s Water Supply.” Spring 2001. Available at http://www.ifg.org/pdf/Blue Ggold new.pdf. Accessed on September 26, 2007.
Lang, et al. – Iain A. Lang, PhD, Tamara S. Galloway, PhD, Alan Scarlett, PhD, et al. “Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration With Medical Disorders and Laboratory Abnormalities in Adults.” The Journal of the American Medical Association. September 2008. Available at http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/reprint/300.11.1303v1?papeto
Karlstrom, Solvie. “Tapped Out: The True Cost of Bottled Water.” Green Guide. National Geographic. July/August 2007. Available at: http://www.thegreenguide.com/doc/121/bottle. Accessed on: September 10, 2007.
Masterson, Danielle. “Picnic Perfect Plastics.” Green Guide. National Geographic. May/June 2006. Available at: http://www.thegreenguide.com/doc/114/picnic. Accessed on May 21, 2008.
McEvoy, Jamie. “Three Simple Steps to Clean, Safe Drinking Water.” Green Guide. National Geographic. March/April 2004. Available at: http://www.thegreenguide.com/doc/101/threesteps. Accessed on: June 3, 2008.
MEO – Michigan Energy Office. “Drinking Fountains.” The Energy Observer. March 2005. Available at: http://www.michigan.gov/documents/CIScis_EOeo_tidbits_04-2005_120787_7.pdf. Accessed on May 19. 2008.
Nalgene – Nalgene. “BPA.” No date. Available at http://www.nalgene-outdoor.com/technical/bpaInfo.html
NC - North Carolina State Energy Office. “Drinking Fountains and Water Coolers.” May 2004. Available at: http://www.p2pays.org/ref/40/39997.pdf. Accessed on July 14, 2008.
NRDC – Natural Resources Defense Council. “Bottled Water: Pure Drink or Pure Hype?” 1999. Available at http://www.nrdc.org/water/drinking/bw/bwinx.asp.
______2005. “Consumer Guide to Water Filters.” Natural Resources Defense Council. August 16, 2005. Available at: http://www.nrdc.org/water/drinking/gfilters.asp. Accessed on May 20, 2007.
NSF – NSF International. Drinking Water Treatment Standards. 2004. Available at: http://www.nsf.org/business/drinking_water_treatment/standards.asp?program=DdrinkingWatTtre.
_____2004a. Water Treatment and Distribution Systems. 2004. Available at: http://www.nsf.org/business/water_distribution/index.asp?program=WaterDdistributionSsys.
NY – State of New York. Letter to Governor Eliot Spitzer from New York State Assembly Environmental Conservation Committee Chair Robert K. Sweeney. August 9, 2007. Received from Steve Liff via email on September 7, 2007.
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_____2009, “Energy Implications of Bottled Water.” February 19, 2009. Available at http://www.iop.org/EJ/article/1748-9326/4/1/014009/erl9_1_014009.pdf?request-id=bd0fcb6e-3a51-4f04-9a19-4e3686b8ceb8
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PFFC – Paper, Film & Foil Converter. “Pouch vs. Bottle.” August 1, 2005. Available at http://pffc-online.com/mag/bottle_pouch_0805/
Polaris- The Polaris Institute. “FOI Request Template: Accessing Your Beverage Exclusivity Contract.” No date. Available at http://www.insidethebottle.org/files/FOI%20Request%20Template.pdf
Posnick and Kim - Posnick, Lauren M and Kim, Henry. “Bottled Water Regulation and the FDA.” U.S. Food and Drug Administration. August/September 2002. Available at http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/botwatr.html.
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SCC – Santa Clara County. “Report Back Regarding the Use of County Funds to Purchase Bottled Water.” Memo from Luke Leung, Deputy County Executive to Finance & Government Operation Committee Chairperson Pete McHugh and Vice-Chairperson Liz Kniss. March 6, 2008. Available at: http://www.sccgov.org/SCCscc/docs/SCCscc%20Public%20Portal/keyboard%20agenda/Ccommittee%20Aagenda/2008/Mmarch%206,%202008/KeyboardTtransmittal-0014441.PDFdf. Accessed on June 7, 2008.
SD – Science Daily. “Plastic Bottles Release Potentially Harmful Chemicals (Bisphenol A) After Contact with Hot Liquids.” February 2008. Available at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/01/080130092108.htm
SKC – Shotyk, William; Michael Krachler; and Bin Chen. “Contamination Of Canadian And European Bottled Waters With Antimony From PET Containers.” Journal of Environmental Monitoring. January 20, 2006. Available at http://www.rsc.org/publishing/journals/EMem/article.asp?doi=b517844b. Accessed on September 26, 2007.
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Spectrum – Spectrum Water Coolers Website. No date. Available at: http://www.spectrumwatercoolers.com/. Accessed on May 1, 2008.
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UCS - Union of Concerned Scientists. “Is Bottled Water Better?” June 2007. Available at http://www.ucsusa.org/publications/greentips/is-bottled-water-better.html
USCM – United States Conference of Mayors. “In New York, Mayors Discuss Importance of Municipal Water, Impact of Bottled Water on Solid Waste.” May 19, 2008. Available at: http://www.usmayors.org/usmayornewspaper/documents/05_19_08/pg13_water.asp. Accessed on June 26, 2008.
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